IMOmath

Number Theory

1. (2 p.)
The square \( \begin{array}{|c|c|c|} \hline x&20&151 \\\hline 38 & & \\ \hline & & \\ \hline\end{array} \) is magic, i.e. in each cell there is a number so that the sums of each row and column and of the two main diagonals are all equal. Find \( x \).

2. (12 p.)
Find the sum of all positive integers of the form \( n = 2^a3^b \) \( (a, b \geq 0) \) such that \( n^6 \) does not divide \( 6^n \).

3. (29 p.)
Let \( \tau (n) \) denote the number of positive divisors of \( n \), including 1 and \( n \). Define \( S(n) \) by \( S(n)=\tau(1)+ \tau(2) + \dots + \tau(n) \). Let \( a \) denote the number of positive integers \( n \leq 2008 \) with \( S(n) \) odd, and let \( b \) denote the number of positive integers \( n \leq 2008 \) with \( S(n) \) even. Find \( |a-b| \).

4. (36 p.)
Let \( a,b,c \) and \( d \) be positive real numbers such that \( a^2+b^2-c^2-d^2=0 \) and \( a^2-b^2-c^2+d^2=\frac {56}{53}(bc+ad) \), Let \( M \) be the maximum possible value of \( \frac {ab+cd}{bc+ad} \) ,If \( M \) can be expressed as \( \frac {m}{n} \),\( (m,n)=1 \) then find \( 100m+n \)

5. (19 p.)
Let \( 0 < a < b < c < d \) be integers such that \( a \), \( b \), \( c \) is an arithmetic progression, \( b \), \( c \), \( d \) is a geometric progression, and \( d - a = 30 \). Find \( a + b + c + d \).





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